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Pdf] Water Governance Performance Assessment In Songkhla Lake Basin, Thailand
Received: 16 October 2019 / Revised: 19 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 25 November 2019
Achieving urban water security is a major challenge for many countries. Although some studies have assessed water security at a regional level, other studies have also shown a lack of water security assessment and the use of measures to achieve this level. Recent studies on the measurement of urban water security are not complete, and the understanding of how to do it and the identification of an evaluation framework to measure the situation are not allowed. current and dynamic water security. Currently, there is no clear or widely supported definition of urban water security. To address this issue, this study offers a systematic approach to better understand urban water security, with a functional definition and an evaluation framework to be used in all regions and cities. The proposed operational definition for urban water security is based on the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals on Water and Sanitation and the Human Rights to Water and Sanitation. It captures the challenges of the city technology, environment, and socio-economic indicators that show reliability, efficiency and salience. The assessment framework includes four main areas to achieve urban water security: drinking water and people, ecology, climate change and water-related risks, and also economic factors (DECS). The process can examine the relationships and trade-offs between the city and water security, and between the DECS indicators. The use of this methodology helps governments, politicians, and water actors to manage scarce resources efficiently and sustainably. The study shows that achieving water security in the city requires a holistic and integrated approach with stakeholders and collaboration to provide an effective way to improve the awareness and management of urban water security.
The world is becoming increasingly urban, dominated by human settlements and economic activity. According to the 2018 revision of World Urbanization Perspectives , more than half of the world’s population-4.2 billion people-live in cities, and this number is expected to grow by 68% and 2.5 billion people by 2050. Urbanization, urban water security, and economic growth. However, for continued growth, the impact of urban water security must be at the center of the national and municipal development program [2, 3, 4].
Water Resource Management
The concept of urban water management is diverse and related to the broad aspects and concepts of urban metabolism, environmental protection, integrated urban water management, the network of water-power-food security, emergency management, water resistance and adaptive. management, and water-related cities [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. A clear understanding of the synergies and deductions between these systems gives more insight into how urban water management works and help to achieve the goal of water security, including the level of the city.
Urban areas are experiencing major changes and are facing the challenges of increasing demands due to population and economic growth, combined with changes in the climate of floods and droughts [7, 8]. These conditions threaten socio-economic development and human and water security, such as inadequate water and sanitation services, waste water management, and water quality and with environmental degradation [9, 10, 11]. 80% of GDP is produced in cities – therefore there are significant economic consequences . Therefore, ensuring the safety of urban water is a serious challenge that can threaten human nutrition, the economy, the environment and national security if not properly addressed [12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17]. Water security is one of the most important issues for politicians and governments.
Water security as a concept has received a lot of attention in the last twenty years in terms of research and debates, and has become a common currency among researchers, development partners, and policy makers focused on contributing to the value of urban water management [18, 19 ] . ]. Most of the water security assessments made at the regional and national level may not always apply at the local level. Understanding water security is a complex process, with different definitions, definitions and assessments used in different disciplines; consider it as governmental, political, technological or human security [ 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 ]. Water security is the main goal of water management, with related concepts such as integration, sustainability, adaptation, resilience, and the water, energy and food nexus [ 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 ].
Water Resources Planning And Management: An Overview
Recent studies have shown the development of many definitions and evaluation frameworks for water security in recent years . However, there is still no understanding of how to create and identify an assessment framework to measure the current state and strength of water security, including in the city. Furthermore, there is no clear and widely supported definition of urban water security [ 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 ]. Water conservation is affected in many ways; Some frameworks focus on issues, while others adopt a broader perspective with a focus on developing water resources to meet human needs [ 30 , 36 , 37 ]. There is some similarity and overlap between the three most used definitions of water security: The Global Water Partnership, World Bank (Grey and Sadoff), and UN-Water [38, 39, 40, 41].
UN-Water has adopted a holistic and interdisciplinary definition that captures all aspects and dimensions, and therefore it will be the basis of the national water security system. Most of the regional water plans are based on the principle of integrated water resources management (IWRM) as a process and as a good principle to achieve water security and the connection with water and society . However, the implementation of IWRM has been criticized for not providing comprehensive solutions to the problems, uncertainties and complexities of water management [ 43 ].
Many studies have shown the lack of assessment of water security and the use of water security measures at the local level [ 44 , 45 , 46 ]. These should show the significant change in water management at the local level to properly address urban water problems and provide decision makers with strong political tools and measures to implement urban water security [31, 47]. Among the broad definitions and assessment frameworks for water security, guidelines established at the city level are used to provide different perspectives on water security [ 48 ]. The most commonly used characters are:
Our Approach To Water Management
We understand that there is a lot of overlap, and sometimes confusion, between the right models, the measurement of performance and financial performance as part of the management system and regulations; and water conservation indicators, which are broader and more relevant to decision makers than management goals.
This paper aims to address this knowledge gap by providing a new operational definition and analysis of various aspects of urban water security.
The proposed framework was developed according to the needs and special features of urban water security, to assess the current and future water situation in the scientific method, with a standard method of building indicators based on the definition of urban water security. .
Governing Sustainable Transformations Of Urban Social Ecological Technological Systems
The methodology for achieving urban water security is based on six systematic steps, as shown in Figure 1, starting with (1) understanding the nature of water conservation in a water-scarce city; (2) what do we think about urban water?
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