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Crisis Management And Productivity Adaptation In Sustainable Fisheries And Aquaculture
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Examples Of Fisheries Management Questions Classified Into Five…
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Mohammad Mahmudul Islam Mohammad Mahmudul Islam Skillet Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, * , Naemul Islam Naemul Islam Skillet Preprints.org Google Scholar 1 , Ahsan Habib Ahsan Habib Skillet Preprints.org Google Scholar 2, 3 and Mohammad Mojibul Haque Mojibul Haque Preprints Md. .org Google Scholar 4
Sustainable Blue Economy Way To Mitigate, Adapt To Changing Climate’
Helsinki Institute for Sustainable Science (HELSUS), Fisheries and Environmental Management Group, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
Received: 23 July 2020 / Revised: 28 August 2020 / Accepted: 29 August 2020 / Published: 25 September 2020
The aim of this study is to identify current threats and expected impacts of climate change on the most important Hilsa Shad (Tenualosa ilisha) fishery and related fishing communities based on fieldwork in six coastal fishing communities. Personal interviews, focus group discussions, oral histories and key informant interviews were conducted to collect empirical data. Time series data of cyclones in the Bay of Bengal and ocean troughs were also analyzed to complement the experimental findings. Analysis of secondary data on climate change events and regional studies indicates that the biophysical conditions of the Bay of Bengal may worsen in the future, leading to more frequent extreme events and affecting the livelihoods of coastal fishing communities in Bangladesh. Fishermen’s respondents indicated that the main target hilsa shad fishery is particularly vulnerable to climate change, changes in migration patterns, reproduction and growth rates. Fishermen always refer to climate risks because they live in coastal areas, are exposed to extreme events and their occupation leads to fishing in dangerous seas. Fishermen said they had to return to shore due to inclement weather associated with cyclones and frequent tropical depressions, which could cause financial loss or even death. Such incidents have a negative impact on the lives and well-being of fishermen. To cope with the effects of climate change, fishers have adopted various strategies, both in marine fishing and in the household. However, these strategies only support fishermen in terms of immediate survival; They are not enough for long-term sustainability. To improve the sustainability of hilsa fishers, the study calls for the implementation of the Small-Scale Fisheries Guidelines (SSF Guidelines), which require an emergency phase and long-term development goals including rehabilitation, reconstruction and recovery. Reduce vulnerability to climate and anthropogenic hazards.
Digital Twins: A Stepping Stone To Achieve Ocean Sustainability?
Climate change is currently one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity [1, 2]. The Fifth Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-AR5) predicts that marine species will redistribute their niches due to climate change in the mid-21st century and beyond. As a result, marine biodiversity declines in climate-sensitive areas, complicating the flow of fisheries and other ecosystem services . Marine species are changing due to rising temperatures [ 4 , 5 ], putting additional stress on fish systems and experiencing overfishing, habitat loss, pollution and other stresses [ 6 , 7 ]. Unexpected impacts of climate change, combined with existing pressures such as overfishing or habitat degradation, can present challenges for fisheries managers [ 8 , 9 ]. Climate change is expected to directly and indirectly affect marine and freshwater fisheries, with consequences for fisheries, coastal fishing populations, and economies dependent on ecosystems . Coastal communities in tropical developing countries are particularly vulnerable to climate change for several reasons: for example, they are highly dependent on fish economically and for food and lack the resources to enhance their adaptation to climate change [11, 12]. Economic income from livelihood strategies of fisherfolk has been significantly affected by climate change impacts and variability. This, in turn, can affect the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of families and communities . Overall, climate change could have dire consequences for fisheries and affect the livelihoods and security of millions of people worldwide . Although these impacts are felt globally, tropical marine habitats and fish stocks are particularly vulnerable, requiring a comprehensive understanding of climate change risks in the tropics .
Bangladesh ranks 18th in terms of national vulnerability to climate change impacts on marine fisheries due to low topography, climate-sensitive agricultural economy, widespread poverty, population density and poor governance. Among these factors, the geophysical location of Bangladesh is mainly responsible for the country’s resilience to climate change impacts and makes it extremely difficult to protect. Sea level rise can be observed along the coast of the country [16, 17]. Only 10% of Bangladesh’s land area is one meter or more above mean sea level, and one-third is exposed to water and therefore exposed to severe natural disasters such as tropical cyclones . Climate change significantly complicates the country’s ability to achieve high economic growth . Bangladesh’s coastal fisheries-dependent communities are particularly vulnerable to climate change, which could threaten the country’s water and fisheries resources .
Therefore, adaptation is required to withstand the shocks and stresses caused by climate change . Although societies, including their fishing communities, are not passive, but rather continuously adapt to a changing climate through a variety of strategies, the effectiveness of any response is spatially inconsistent [ 21 ]. Fishing communities are particularly vulnerable because they are close to the coast for easy access to fishing grounds; They also depend on climate-sensitive fisheries and their social status can often be defined as low-income . Therefore, fishing communities deserve more attention in the climate change adaptation debate, as they face complex climate change impacts and non-climate stressors . Again, it must be recognized that not all fishing communities are equally vulnerable, as vulnerability is contextual. Communities that rely on native stocks of multiple species are particularly sensitive to changes in stocks due to fishing, climate variability, or other factors . An important aspect of understanding fisher vulnerability is that fisheries-dependent communities may be increasingly vulnerable to changes in fish and income variability, changes in fish quantity and quality, and threats to their security [ 24 ]. Overall, climate change has major consequences for fisheries and is expected to affect millions of people worldwide .
The State Of World Fisheries And Aquaculture 2020
Ilisha shad (Tenualosa ilisha) is a euryhaline anadromous fish species found in marine, coastal, estuarine and freshwater environments. The species is distributed over a large area of tropical ecosystems from the Straits of Malacca near Malaysia to the Euphrates River in Iraq. Hilsa fish stocks are also shared with India and Myanmar, but only Bangladesh has attempted to improve its stocks through effective conservation initiatives . The habitats of Bangladesh include the coastal and marine waters of the Bay of Bengal and all major coastal rivers including the Padma, Yamuna and Meghna rivers. This fast-swimming species  can travel large distances upstream: typically 50–100 km in rivers in Bangladesh. Favorable water conditions are essential for successful spawning. The optimum temperature range for spawning is 20–25 °C, 0–2 ppt salinity and >5 ppm dissolved oxygen. Rainfall is an important factor for increasing contribution. A suitable range of rainfall is between 150 and 300 mm/m . After hatching, the eggs are placed in clean water; followed by incubation for 23–26 h at an average temperature of 23 °C. In 5-6 months, larvae and juveniles begin to migrate downstream. After 6–10 weeks, fry grow to 12–20 cm and become juveniles (locally known as jatka). At this stage, juveniles begin to migrate to seawater for further growth and maturation. After a year at sea, the hilsa mature and begin to return to inland rivers . In general, the growth of hilsa varies
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