Crisis Management And Sustainable Adaptation During Natural Disasters And Climate Change – Research on the effect of adding fly ash from car wash sludge to lime and cement pastes
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Crisis Management And Sustainable Adaptation During Natural Disasters And Climate Change
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Strengthening Disaster Response And Cooperation In South Asia
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A) Global Trends In The Number Of Disasters Caused By Various Natural…
Coastal Climate Adaptation to Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction: A Review of Policies, Programs and Practices for Sustainable Planning Outcomes
Emmanuel Tolulope Busayo Emmanuel Tolulope Busayo Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar * and Ahmed Mukalazi Kalumba Ahmed Mukalazi Kalumba Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar
Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, Eastern Cape, South Africa
About The Disaster Risk Management Knowledge Centre
Received: 28 March 2020 / Revised: 8 May 2020 / Accepted: 8 May 2020 / Published: 11 August 2020
Climate change and disaster risk are a major concern, given the vulnerability of coastal areas and cities to various climate disaster threats. Thus, the urban population and planning participants are faced with the problems of finding ways to integrate adaptation measures into people’s lives and the planning system. However, synergies between climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) remain fragmented and uncertain. Thus, this review highlighted recent theoretical and practical methodologies for sustainable planning outcomes in relation to the topics of CCA and DRR. This paper presents a new model, the Problem Analysis Model (PAM), designed to analyze the identification of the source-cause-effect(s) of risks and responses to climate disasters at the local or community level. Finally, the three identified factors (policy, program and practice) were discussed in detail as a step towards implementing the model and improving sustainable planning outcomes.
Adaptation to climate change and disaster risk reduction largely overlap, taking into account actions aimed at addressing climate change and natural disaster risk over many years, and therefore a joint attention to these two phenomena is needed [1, 2, 3]. The level of climate change impacts and disaster risk in coastal areas should emphasize strategies to achieve sustainable planning outcomes, which will include building on policies, programs and practices that stand the test of time . In addition, damage related to disasters caused by climate change in coastal areas has recently worsened due to social vulnerability and increased environmental risks, sea level rise, hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, soil erosion, coastal pollution. and coastal invasion . Over the past two years, more than 10,000 deaths have been recorded worldwide due to various types of natural disasters, raising concerns about the severity, frequency, damage, number of people and property at risk .
Why It’s Time To Build Climate Resilience Into Chinese Manufacturing
As a result, global warming increases the intensity of extreme weather events, and the frequency and scale of the consequences of climate change become more complex . Therefore, there is now an urgent need for planning systems to adopt a more comprehensive approach to mitigating emerging hazards . Recently, developing countries are threatened by several natural disasters caused by urban expansion and haphazard planning, which causes a decrease in economic resources and deterioration of livelihoods [7, 8]. In addition, there are various climatic disasters that affect people due to poor housing of residents and “informalization” of settlements such as shacks, shacks, slums, and housing units with poor infrastructure . However, recent studies have shown that most urban areas are vulnerable to climate disasters due to industrialization and poor service culture [9, 10]. Disaster risk is a phenomenon caused by a lack of synergy between planning and development dynamics, resulting in threats and vulnerabilities. In addition, haphazard planning in a developing coastal urban area can lead to high disaster risk and urban sprawl. In most cases, depletion of vegetation cover by human activity, for example, construction of roads, construction of new buildings, laying of asphalt and concrete in places of flora development, can negatively change the urban climate .
According to Dedekorkut-Howes et al.  there are large gaps in knowledge regarding the comparative costs and benefits of adaptation strategies, arguing that adaptation to coastal climates must incorporate local characteristics using a combination of structural and non-structural measures to be effective. Nevertheless, climate change is gradually disrupting human natural environments, especially coastal communities, leading to vulnerability that is intuitively organized in a variety of ways, and therefore disaster risk reduction is an important task that can enhance community resilience. Furthermore, the alignment of possible policy interventions and programs to address these vulnerabilities requires extensive discussion. This discussion can be translated into real policy implementation at the relevant municipal or local level [12, 13, 14].
Considering the threats associated with climate change and the risk of natural disasters, recent environmental events have shown that unless a sustainable approach is adopted to overcome the culminating effects of these two phenomena, societies and cities will continue to live under imminent danger and irreversible risks  ]. This paper therefore aims to answer critical questions about how to improve sustainable planning outcomes through policy, program and practice in line with the emerging science of synergistic climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction.
Nature Based Solutions To Disasters
This study used search terms according to the research objective to identify articles on climate change, disaster risk, coastal areas, climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction, sustainable planning, change climate’. and natural disaster risk in South Africa’ and ‘policy, program and practice related to sustainable living’. Science Direct, the main Web of Science database and Google Scholar were used to review and search for articles written in English only . Some other works would have deserved to be included in this study, but the language barrier excluded them. This review was based on the research and understanding of CCA and DRR in relation to the outcomes of sustainable coastal and urban planning. The documentary analysis was designed to assess the facts and evidence; this is very consistent with the process of gathering information according to a qualitative research approach . Furthermore, this article does not aim to address the structural units presented in the research, but can only recognize the importance of incremental and transformational dynamics .
Recent studies have indicated some interactions as well as key studies on the integration of CCA and DRR [10, 17, 18, 19]. In their study, Birkmann and von Teichmann  found that combining the two domains depends on bottlenecks subject to incompatibilities of historical, spatial and functional scales, including differences in standards and data usage. Most of these incompatibilities have resulted in lost chances to integrate CCA and DRR for sustainable planning outcomes . Within the framework of integrated coastal zone management, the importance of concepts such as risk, disaster, reconstruction and recovery is undoubtedly significant, especially considering the impact of climate change, for example, the recovery phase of disaster risk reduction provides an opportunity for long-term long-term measures, but the opportunity often remains ignored and unoccupied [18, 19]. In addition, in most cases, the possibility of adaptive recovery and response to future climate changes is not taken into account, since recovery tends to focus on restructuring as soon as possible to pre-disaster conditions .
It has been shown that extreme climate events will occur in Africa, which will affect human adaptation to climate change and increase the risk of disaster in the future. For example, South Africa experienced devastating floods in 1994–1995, 2000, 2011 and 2012 in the Western Cape, Limpopo, KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape [20, 21]. This is scientific confirmation of climatic phenomena that affected South Africa and its population . In addition to the key indicators of disasters recognized by development failure, which is unsustainable development, other key drivers of disasters include poverty, haphazard planning, failed urban expansion and environmental degradation caused by climate change. Additionally, global disaster statistics (2013–2017) show that natural hazards result in an estimated “10,846 deaths,” “49,303 injuries,” and “$148 billion in structural costs” each year [ 23 ]. The rate of loss growth needs improvement
Disaster Resilience: Early Warnings For All In Asia And The Pacific
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