E-waste Recycling In The Context Of Digital Innovation – The use of data validation and reconciliation to improve measurement results for the characterization of wastewater co-incineration emissions.
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E-waste Recycling In The Context Of Digital Innovation
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Critical Infrastructure And The E Waste Data Security Threat
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E Waste In Vietnam: A Narrative Review Of Environmental Contaminants And Potential Health Risks
Samuel Abalansa Samuel Abalansa Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, 2, * Newton Alice Newton Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2
Laboratory of Geography, Water and Environment, (LG2E-CERNE2D), Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Mohammed V University, Rabat 10000, Morocco
Received: March 3, 2021 / Revised: April 15, 2021 / Accepted: April 27, 2021 / Published: May 10, 2021
E Waste Academy
E-waste (e-waste) is a rapidly growing environmental problem, especially for developed countries. There are technical solutions to deal with it, but these are expensive, and the cheap option for many developed countries is to export most of their waste to underdeveloped countries. There are various laws and policies governing the disposal of e-waste at different regulatory scales, such as the international Basel Convention, the regional Bamko Convention and various national laws. However, many regulations are not fully implemented, and there is considerable economic pressure to maintain projects created to handle e-waste. Mexico, Brazil, Ghana, Nigeria, India, and China were selected for a more detailed study of the transboundary movement of e-waste. This includes a systematic review of existing literature, the application of the Drivers, Stressors, States, Impacts, and Responses (DPSIR) framework to analyze complex issues related to social ecosystems, and life cycle assessment (LCA). Environmental impact of electronic devices from production to final disposal. As there is not enough data for selected developing countries, Japan, Italy, Switzerland and Norway were chosen to show how e-waste is transferred to developing countries. The good, bad, and ugly results of this study are identified: the good is job creation and the use of e-waste as a source of raw materials. BAD is the poor environmental conditions in developing countries. UGLY can affect the health of workers who handle e-waste. There are several management options to reduce the impact of BAD and UGLY, such as using the concept of a circular economy, urbanization, reducing vulnerability and improving existing policies and regulations, as well as reducing disparity. E-waste management top-down income management. Globalization calls for developed countries to help developing countries combat e-waste, instead of exporting environmental problems to these poor regions.
Today, the world has various environmental problems caused by production activities such as plastic pollution and electronic waste (e-waste). Plastic pollution can be traced back to the beginning of plastic production in the 1950s , but more recently, electronic waste is considered an emerging environmental problem . Most of this can be traced back to major developed countries, although there are contributions from rapidly developing countries such as China and India.
The Basel Convention was designed to ensure that environmental problems are not exported across borders [3, 4, 5]. Developed countries have modern facilities, finance and technology for waste disposal . However, most of the e-waste is not collected but exported to developing countries that struggle with economic problems such as poverty . Although developing countries have to pay to receive the waste, the Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH) suggests that economic activities focused on pollution are diverted to areas with the weakest environmental regulations, or to developing countries . Many studies [9, 10] have highlighted the relationship between PHH and the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). EKC said that with development and industrialization, the country’s concentration of pollution reaches a limit, which can use the country’s growing economic resources to reduce the concentration of pollution. This means that a clean environment in a developed country can destroy a poor environment in a developing country. Therefore, EKC describes PHH, which increases environmental degradation in pre-industrial economies associated with the introduction of waste in post-industrial economies.
Ramping Up E Waste Awareness In Rwanda
The electronics industry is one of the fastest growing and largest manufacturing industries in the world [12, 13]. E-waste is three times faster than other waste. For example, 20 million to 50 million tons of electronic and electrical equipment waste (WEEE is electronic waste) is generated annually . 53.6 million tons of e-waste was generated in 2019 . In 2014, the United States was the largest producer of e-waste (7.1 million tons), followed by China (6 million tons) .
Many factors have contributed to the increase in e-waste. These include short equipment life, recycling  and continuous upgrading of electronic equipment. Electronic waste has been described as one of the most difficult wastes to manage due to its constantly changing characteristics and characteristics . Developed countries know that recycling end-of-life electronic devices can contribute to ridding the environment of harmful chemicals , but in 2014, only 15% of electronic waste generated was officially disposed of through recycling nationwide . According to the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), only 10% of electronic waste produced today is collected in developed countries, while the remaining 90% is sent to developing countries around the world. In addition, obsolete or used electronic and electrical equipment (EEE) is distributed as a donation to developing countries that cannot afford new electronic equipment but need to keep up with the world with advanced technology. Indeed, most of the waste is sent to the most developed and most indebted countries, such as Ghana, Nigeria, Chile, Uruguay, Vietnam, Colombia, Peru and Ecuador. These countries lack fully developed infrastructure and recycling management systems for electronic waste treatment . With the expansion of consumer culture, the amount of WEEE sent to the country will increase [24, 25]. In addition, the regulations in the receiving country are less strict, making it easy to dispose of electronic waste . Electronic recycling requires safe extraction of salvageable materials from modern facilities and is expensive to install . Developing countries often use informal recycling methods to extract resources from e-waste, exposing workers to the harmful content of e-waste.
Improper disposal of WEEE is unsafe for human health and the environment, continuously releasing heavy metals and organics [ 27 , 28 , 29 ]. Overall, 70% of toxic and hazardous chemicals reported in the environment come from e-waste . It contains heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium and beryllium, as well as contaminated PVC plastics, such as brominated flame retardants, which are harmful to human health and the environment. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are an important component of e-waste. They can bioaccumulate and biodegrade through the food web .
Blockchain Is Revolutionizing The Waste Management Industry. Towards A Circular Economy: A Case Study By Carbon
The study focuses on six countries in the world’s top 10 e-waste. The purpose of this analysis is to compare and contrast the common drivers of e-waste in this country, public activities, existing pressures, environmental changes, impacts on human well-being, and measures to overcome these problems. This study summarizes the existing national and international legal contributions to e-waste management and synthesis of knowledge.
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