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Energy Systems And Sustainability Power For A Sustainable Future Pdf
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What Is Green Energy? (definition, Types And Examples)
Department of Land, Water and Environmental Research, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology (KICT), Daehwa-dong 283, Goyangdae-ro, Ilsanseo-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 10223, Korea
Received: January 21, 2020 / Revised: February 3, 2020 / Accepted: February 5, 2020 / Published: February 10, 2020
Renewable energy technologies help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but are also very useful for generating electricity in remote locations where no other energy sources are available. This study focuses on the technically and economically optimal design of a small hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) consisting of wind and solar energy as main energy sources. The HRES model was used for a full year of actual electricity consumption data for a remote island (Deokjeok-do Island, South Korea). On Deokjeok-do Island, the average daily load introduced was 24,720 kWh and the peak load was 2,291.54 kW. Average annual values of wind speed and daily sunlight are estimated to be 3.6 m/s (10 m height) and 4.13 kWh/m
Promoting Sustainable Energy
Appropriately. To achieve the hourly load demand of the mentioned island, a total of 8760 simulations were performed. To cope with the surplus and shortage of electricity, two different types of energy storage systems (ESSs) have been devised, namely batteries and pumped storage (PHS). Four different HRES were rated as most suitable based on Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) and Net Present Cost (NPC). A detailed financial breakdown of each entity and the impact of various sensitivity variables on decision making are also discussed in detail.
Hybrid Renewable Energy System (HRES); Energy Economics; Energy Storage System (ESS); Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE); Net Present Cost (NPC); A balanced assessment
As the world’s population has grown rapidly over the past few decades, meeting the electricity needs of the vast majority of people has now become a major challenge for governments and energy policy makers. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), by 2010, 1 in 5 people in the world had no access to electricity . Most people without electricity live in remote areas such as villages and islands. One solution is to extend the main network to such remote areas, but in the case of places far from the main areas, this solution is not feasible not only from a technical point of view but also economically. Therefore, one of the best alternatives is to build an independent power generation plant in such locations using locally available renewable energy sources such as wind and sun [2, 3, 4, 5, 6].
Renewable Energy, Facts And Information
As of now, extensive research has been undertaken on the presentation of HRES in remote areas. For example, A.P. Navarro et al.  arranged a hybrid structure including biomass and wind to plan a power plant with a maximum capacity of 40 MW in Spain. Apart from the guidelines framework, their structural HRES includes further various parts, such as additional generators, ESSs and biogas generators. H. Borhanazad et al.  conducted a study to analyze the wind characteristics, solar controlled radiation and water potential of different provinces in Malaysia for common jap. M. Gibran et al.  examined Pakistan’s biomass potential and found that biomass generates 24% of the country’s total electricity requirement. In their assessment, they considered biomass, such as municipal solid waste (MSW), bagasse from sugarcane and compost from native organisms. Binayak B et al.  The most promising HRES model is thought of for urban power plants including wind, photovoltaic and hydropower. They demonstrated that presenting such HRES in remote zones is economically cheaper compared to conventional energy assets, for example, nuclear. Mazzola et al.  proposed a PV biomass-based HRES for the grid in India and also incorporated its financial feasibility. Developers mention that LCOE can be reduced by up to 40% in no time by replacing and analyzing diesel generators in terms of energy age. Furthermore, Jameel A. and others.  analyzed HRES with wind and photovoltaic biomass as key vitality points of a grid called Kallar Kahar in Pakistan. The study was conducted for various conditions, and the analyst proposed the installation of HRES near the recently mentioned site, depending on good moderate economic performance.
South Korea is one such country that has a large number of islands in its territory. Most of these islands are connected to the central grid to meet the electricity demand. However, there are some islands located quite far from the mainland, which makes it impossible to connect them with the central network. One such island is Deokjeok-do Island (Latitude: 37.22°, Longitude: 126.15°), which is about 50 km from the port of Incheon. Currently, most of the electricity generated here comes from fossil fuels, but the government intends to make the island 100% diesel free, like other nearby islands. In this study, a self-contained and off-grid hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) is designed and optimized to provide environmentally friendly power to an island.
Recently, several studies have been conducted to determine the feasibility of establishing HRES in remote areas of South Korea. For example, S. Baek et al.  Busan, a large metropolitan city in South Korea, is credited with developing an excellent renewable energy generation system. The study used Busan City’s electricity consumption data for 2013 and conducted multiple scenario-based case studies. They considered only wind and solar power as primary energy sources and found that the lowest LCOE corresponds to a value of approximately $0.399/kWh at a 100% renewable energy fraction (REF). In another experimental study, S. Baek et al.  Renewable energy energy systems have been designed for South Korea’s largest international airport, Incheon International Airport. The authors used current load (100% load), 120% load and 140% load as the basic input values for three different scenarios respectively. Based on economic parameters like LCOE and NPC, the authors concluded that the entire electricity demand of the mentioned airport can be completely covered by renewable energy alone.
Brown Launches New Initiative To Galvanize Research In Sustainable Energy Technology
Similarly, S. Baek et al.  A suitable HRES was also designed for an emerging South Korean island known as Yeongjong Island. This small island is critical to South Korea’s economy as it is home to Incheon International Airport. The authors strongly recommend installing an HRES consisting of 11 generic 10 kW wind turbines and 357 kW solar panels, with an LCOE of $0.545/kWh and an NPC equal to about $3.51 million. A similar study was conducted by H. Kim et al  focusing on Jeju Island, the largest island in South Korea. The authors have framed multiple scenarios under two major categories, i.e. grid-connected and off-grid power generation systems. They determined that a grid-connected HRES consisting of PV, wind and battery inverter is most suitable for Jeju Island with very low LCOE. E. Park and S. J. Kwon  proposed an innovative method of using HRES for electric taxis (EP) in Daejeon, South Korea. They came up with three most suitable HRES for this purpose (low LCOE and high REF): the most reliable case (grid connection) with LCOE of $0.425/kWh and REF of 0.82, and the most suitable case (grid connection) with LCOE of $0.180/kWh and REF of 0.79 and the most suitable off-grid case with LCOE 0.461 $/kWh and REF 1.0. Similarly, E. Park and S. J. Kwan  and K. Yoo et al.  also suggested an independent HRES suitable for Gadeokdo Island and Ulleungdo Island in South Korea, respectively. A slightly different case
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