Global Food Demand And The Sustainable Intensification Of Agriculture – Sustainable agricultural intensification (SI) is needed to limit negative environmental impacts, meet the nutritional needs of a growing population and thereby ensure food security. The aim of this study is to examine the global scientific results of sustainable intensification research between 2010 and August 20, 2021. The data was obtained from the Web of Science (WoS) core collection and analyzed using bibliometric methods and the VOS viewer to identify the most productive countries. Organizations through collaborative analysis that includes research hotspots, trend analysis keywords, and the most cited articles in the field. From 1,610 studies published by 1,981 organizations and 6,346 authors from 115 countries on the topic of sustainable agriculture, the research found that 293 publications and 10,275 citations were published in 2020, and the number of articles and citations increased. Among the countries with the most publications in this field, the United States is the leader. “Food security”, “climate change”, “agriculture”, “ecosystem services”, “conservation agriculture”, “sub-Saharan Africa”, “Africa”, “biodiversity”, “maize” appear in both keywords. Author and all keywords (author and index) demonstrate the importance of sustainable intensification in Africa as a solution to food security in the face of climate change. The presence of funding agencies from major economies explains the growing interest of developing countries in agricultural research SI due to growing population, food security and limited availability of land for agriculture.
Due to climate change, land degradation and biodiversity loss, soil has become one of the world’s most vulnerable resources. Because agricultural expansion carries environmental and social costs, avoiding the conversion of natural land to agricultural land benefits biodiversity (Phalan et al., 2011) and other important ecosystem services (Garnett et al., 2013). Sustainable intensification (SI) approaches have been advocated to improve natural resource management with a focus on reducing the gap between profits and productivity (Garnett et al., 2013; Kakzan et al., 2013; Pretty and Bharucha, 2014). Based on Godfray et al. (2010) and Pretty et al. (2011) and Giller et al. (2015) The important characteristics of SI include producing more output per unit area, increasing the flow of environmental services, and accumulating natural, social and human capital. Based on Pretty (1997) and Garnett and Godfray (2012), SI was first used in African agriculture in the mid-1990s. Cassi et al. also pointed this out. pointed out. (2015) and David et al. (2016), global research on SI practices focuses primarily on Africa, where farmers are the main object of study, including their behavioral choices in SI practices. In Africa, SI is important because it enables higher yields per unit area while taking into account sustainability issues such as social, economic, political and environmental impacts (FAO, 2006). Sustainable intensification (SI) is more widespread than ecological and agroecological intensification (Tittonell, 2014; Petersen and Snapp, 2015), and SI has become increasingly important as a key approach to meeting today’s food security needs (Smith et al. , 2017). . ). There is increasing evidence that sustainable agricultural practices can ensure sustainability and increase agricultural productivity (Rockström et al., 2017). However, according to the same author, production growth does not necessarily mean that yields should be increased everywhere or in some areas at all costs, since yield increases are compatible with environmental improvements and that land redistribution and yield reductions are necessary to offset yield increases in other areas. is necessary. and create environmental benefits such as sustainability, carbon sequestration, recreation, biodiversity conservation and flood protection. Global food security challenges require a global response, and key food security issues are addressed through a range of mechanisms, including agricultural SI and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals to end hunger. The goal of combating climate change and ending food insecurity is clearly defined in SDG 2: “End hunger, improve nutrition, ensure food security and promote sustainable agriculture”. However, this goal will be difficult to achieve without land and soil restoration and rehabilitation. Therefore, mapping research trends and existing knowledge areas is important to make predictions and find final solutions on SI in agriculture. Due to lack of food insecurity in different parts of the world, SI can only play an important role in alleviating food insecurity in the agricultural sector if the knowledge of current research areas is understood. One way to highlight what has been done and what is still missing and to understand the focus of research is bibliometric mapping. It is important to analyze and conduct knowledge mapping through bibliometric analysis. An important aspect of this research is to clarify knowledge gaps and how SI can be used as a process to close them. For example, in 2015, Okem noted that despite the successes of the Comprehensive African Agricultural Development Program (CAADP), food insecurity in Africa remains a challenge (Okem, 2015). Even in recent times, food security remains a problem (Ajibade, 2020; Ngcamu and Chari, 2020; Ojo et al., 2022). Additionally, a recent study in Canada highlighted that food insecurity remains a widespread problem in Canadian households (Hutchinson and Tarasuk, 2022). Therefore, it is imperative to understand the food safety debate and whether SI understands the inseparability of these two concepts.
Global Food Demand And The Sustainable Intensification Of Agriculture
A bibliometric analysis based on articles from the Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection database between 2010 and 2021 was used to highlight global research trends in sustainable agricultural intensification (SI), while Vosviewer was used to visualize relevant data. the result. Bibliometric analysis is used in various fields as an important tool of quantitative analysis because it can effectively identify general trends in the development of a topic or field (Hirsch, 2005; De Bakker et al., 2016). Based on the main results of the research, the main research areas related to sustainable agricultural intensification that require further improvement are examined.
No Sustainability Without Intensification
Due to the rapidly growing global population, sustainable agricultural intensification (SI) has received increasing attention, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where the population is growing rapidly along with soil growth (Bello-Schünemann et al., 2017). Deterioration (Tully et al., 2015), which will be exacerbated by climate change (IPCC, 2007). Furthermore, since about 40% of the world’s land area has been converted to agriculture (Ramankutty et al., 2008), only 9% of the world’s agricultural area was covered by SI in 2018 (Pretty et al., 2018).
Agricultural technologies promoted as a means to promote sustainable intensification include Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA), Conservation Agriculture (CA), and Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) (Place et al., 2003; Giller et al., 2015 ), including agriculture, carbon benefits, integrated pest management, and ecosystem services (Mbow et al., 2019). Based on Mbow et al. (2019) and Xie et al. (2019), many SI practices can be classified into 10 approaches and categories based on their application, as in a review by Nciizah et al. described. (2022). Approaches identified in their research include irrigation water management, soil management, greater diversity in cropping systems, and integrated pest management. These methods can improve food safety. For example, the Comprehensive Assessment of Agricultural Water Management in the Savannah Regions (2007) demonstrated significant potential for improving rainwater agriculture through improved rainwater harvesting. For example, farmers in semi-arid Burkina Faso use pits to rehabilitate degraded land and capture rainwater. 300,000 hectares were rehabilitated, which corresponds to an annual increase of 80,000 tons. manufactured food products (Reij et al., 2009). Rusinamhodzi et al. (2011) showed significant yield increases for smallholder farmers using nature reserves in several parts of sub-Saharan Africa. For example, Tierfelder and Wall (2012) reported yield increases of up to 27% in Mozambique, and these production increases were associated with increased soil organic carbon, which improved soil biological and physical processes. It should be noted that the adoption of SI practices may also benefit other countries. In Brazil, for example, Altieri et al. (2012) reported that producers in protected fields suffered an average corn yield loss of about 20% during severe droughts in 2008–2009, compared to 50% for conventional corn producers.
However, in light of climate change, climate smart agriculture (CSA) aims to achieve the same food security goals as sustainable agriculture. In Africa, CSA can increase productivity and resilience while reducing the vulnerability of millions of smallholder farmers (Sullivan et al., 2012). Climate smart agriculture (CSA) is based on CA, agroecology and organic farming in countries such as South Africa [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF), 2014]. CSA and agroecological agriculture share the goals of food security and climate change. Although agroecology is presented as a component of CSA and SI by the Global Alliance for Climate Smart Agriculture (GACSA) (2014), CSA and agroecology differ in other respects. CSA distinguishes three dimensions of sustainable development (economic, social and environmental) by addressing climate change and food security. However, there are some
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