The Psychology Of Profitable Branding And Sustainable Forestry Practices – Biodiversity of cocoa agroforests in the Bengamisa-Yangambi forest landscape in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
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The Psychology Of Profitable Branding And Sustainable Forestry Practices
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James L. Chamberlain James L. Chamberlain Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, * , Dietrich Darr Dietrich Darr Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2 and Catherine Meinhold Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2
Received: August 7, 2020 / Revised: October 2, 2020 / Accepted: October 12, 2020 / Published: October 16, 2020
The importance of forests in protecting agricultural production by regulating ecosystem services such as clean water, soil conservation, and climate regulation is well documented, but the contribution of forests and trees to meeting the nutritional needs of growing populations remains to be seen. not understood. done. Plants, fungi, and animals harvested from forests have long provided a variety of benefits for nutrition, health, income, and cultural purposes. All over the world, the main element of “forestry” is the production of industrial wood. Gathering food from the forest was not even a thought, but a minor activity that simply happened and was almost invisible in official statistics. For many people, forests are a reliable source of essential food and essential nutrients. For others, foraging in forests provides cultural, recreational, and diverse culinary benefits. These products are perceived by consumers as more “natural” and healthier than agricultural products. Forest and wild foods are increasingly used as key ingredients in a billion-dollar industry as demand for “natural” food production increases. Consumer trends indicate a growing interest in forest-based food collection that incorporates biological processes and new forms of cultural interaction with the natural world. In addition, growing demands to “reorient” agricultural production present opportunities to expand the role of forests in food production; Restart food systems by integrating forests and trees. We use examples of different plants, such as the baobab, to explore how forests and trees support food security and nutrition, and to illustrate elements of a framework that promotes forest-tree integration. Forests and trees offer innovative opportunities as well as technological and logistical challenges for expanding food systems and transitioning to a bioeconomy. This shift is necessary to meet the demand for safe and nutritious food and to maintain forest biodiversity.
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Global food demand is expected to triple by 2050 . According to some estimates, food production will need to increase by more than 70 percent in the next 40 years . Feeding a growing world population places increasing demands on agricultural systems and land. Given the significant challenges of maintaining past productivity growth rates for major crops in the future [3, 4], pressure to convert natural ecosystems and forest lands to agricultural production may increase , this practice led to huge losses. biological diversity. The traditional approach to achieving food security has resulted in the loss of forest cover, which directly or indirectly supports the food security and nutritional needs of hundreds of millions of people, especially in developing countries. Therefore, one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century is to increase food production to improve food security without reducing forest area or biodiversity .
More than a billion people worldwide depend on forests and trees, as well as forest foods for nutrition [7, 8]. Villagers living near the forest obtain a variety of food products from the forest , which is especially important for the poor [10, 11, 12]. Meanwhile, wild foods are an integral part of the diet of vulnerable urban and high-income populations in many parts of the world [13, 14, 15, 16, 17].
According to the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security , forests contribute to food security and nutrition in several ways. The direct food supply from forests may represent less than one percent of the world’s food supply, but the contribution to the quality and diversity of the diet is important for the health of families and is very important for well-being. Forest products, especially fruits and vegetables, are rich in micronutrients that are often lacking in poor people . In 1997, trees in developing countries produced approximately 390 million tons of food . On average, more than 258 metric tons of forest products are harvested annually in the United States . A recent survey of households harvesting forest products across Europe reported an average of 60 kg per year, with a median of 20 kg .
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Forests provide energy for agriculture and the processing of forest foods for consumption. In general, wood fuel provides 6% of total energy sources, but in some regions of Africa, wood fuel provides more than 25% of energy needs . In addition to using wood as fuel for households, processing it into charcoal to sell and supply urban centers provides employment and income in many rural areas . In many developing countries, coal is the main source of energy for urban households . At the same time, fuelwood shortages can negatively impact household food security and health, as typical household livelihood strategies include selling or exchanging food for fuelwood. , including using low-quality wood substitutes such as manure or consuming less food, reducing the amount of underripe wood. boiling water is not enough to save food or firewood . Although the impact of fuelwood harvesting on forests is highly context-dependent, evidence suggests that harvesting levels may exceed sustainable levels [25, 26]. These negative environmental impacts are partly explained by an informal and unregulated woodfuel sector and a woodfuel value chain with weak enforcement and governance mechanisms .
According to FAO , the commercialization of forest foods and other forest products, such as firewood, accounts for about 20 percent of agricultural household income in developing countries. Formal forestry employs more than 13 million people and provides income to purchase food and other basic needs . Total income from non-timber forest products (non-timber forest products (NTFP)) is more than US$88 billion, but estimates are widely accepted to be lower. is done  (p. 25). ). Animal products (e.g., bushmeat, hunting) generate another $10.5 billion, while the collection of medicinal and aromatic plants generates nearly $700 million . Estimates of employment in forestry include workers worldwide who work in informal forestry, harvesting goods for direct consumption, or without recording any transactions. does not include the countless people involved in the exchange and trade of products. It is estimated that more than 300 million people depend on forests for part of their annual life and livelihood . In some cases, food collected from the forest can reduce a family’s food budget by 60 percent .
Forests provide many products and services that are consumed or used by people everywhere to meet their needs. A wide variety of forest plants, mushrooms, and animals are harvested for food, medicine, and other needs and luxuries. While descriptions of the role of forests in human nutrition and food security by providing food, energy, and income opportunities have been shown to be flawed, we argue that they miss important and critical aspects—the most importantly, we emphasize that it is often overlooked due to informality. the nature of markets. and consumption of forest products not recorded in official global statistics. Forests can indeed contribute to food systems locally and globally in many other ways, as we will show in the next section. Although steps are being taken to improve the situation , more can be done. Recognizing these contributions is essential to better realizing and realizing the potential of forests for sustainable human nutrition.
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